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There are strong indications of a former royal residence from the Viking Age in Viby, a few kilometres south of the Aarhus city centre.
The growing influence of the Church during the Middle Ages gradually turned Aarhus, with its bishopric, into a prosperous religious centre.
Whichever spelling local authorities choose, most newspapers and public institutions will accept it.
Some official authorities such as the Danish Language Committee, publisher of the Danish Orthographic Dictionary, still retain "Århus" as the main name, providing "Aarhus" as a new, second option, in brackets and some institutions are still using "Århus" explicitly in their official name, such as the local newsmedia Århus Stiftstidende and the schools Århus Kunstakademi and Århus Statsgymnasium for example.
In the 1970s and 1980s, Aarhus became the centre for Denmark's rock music fostering many iconic bands such as TV-2 and Gnags.
Aarhus is home to the annual eight-day Aarhus International Jazz Festival, the SPo T Festival and the North Side Festival.
In the 900s an earth rampart for the defence of the early city was constructed, encircling the settlement, much like the defence structures found at Viking ring fortresses elsewhere.
The rampart was later reinforced by Harald Bluetooth, and together with the town's geographical placement, this suggests that Aros was an important trade and military centre.
Major Danish companies have based their headquarters here and people commute for work and leisure from a wide area in Region Midtjylland.It is notable that the "Aa" spelling has been in use the longest."Aa" was also used by some major institutions between 1948-2011 as well, such as Aarhus university (AU) or the largest local sports club, Aarhus Gymnastikforening (AGF), who have never used the "Å"-spelling.Many public and religious buildings were built in and around the city; notably Aarhus Cathedral was initiated in the late 12th century by the influential bishop Peder Vognsen.In 1441, Christopher III issued the oldest known charter granting market town status although similar privileges may have existed as far back as the 12th century.
The inner urban area contains 269,022 inhabitants (as of 1 January 2017 The history of Aarhus began as a fortified Viking settlement founded in the 8th century and with the first written records stemming from the bishopric seated here from at least 948.